Oliveira R., Luís M., Sargento S.

Ad Hoc Networks


High vehicular mobility in urban scenarios originates inter-vehicles communication discontinuities, a highly important factor when designing a forwarding strategy for vehicular networks. Store, carry and forward mechanisms enable the usage of vehicular networks in a large set of applications, such as sensor data collection in IoT, contributing to smart city platforms. This work evaluates the performance of several location-based and social-aware forwarding schemes through emulations and in a real scenario. Gateway Location Awareness (GLA), a location-aware ranking classification, makes use of velocity, heading angle and distance to the gateway, to select the vehicles with higher chance to deliver the information in a shorter period of time, thus differentiating nodes through their movement patterns. Aging Social-Aware Ranking (ASAR) exploits the social behavior of each vehicle, where nodes are ranked based on a historical contact table, differentiating vehicles with a high number of contacts from those who barely contact with other vehicles. To merge both location and social aforementioned algorithms, a HYBRID approach emerges, thus generating a more intelligent mechanism. For each strategy, we evaluate the influence of several parameters in the network performance, as well as we comparatively evaluate the strategies in different scenarios. Experiment results, obtained both in emulated (with real traces of both mobility and vehicular connectivity from a real city-scale urban vehicular network) and real scenarios, show the performance of GLA, ASAR and HYBRID schemes, and their results are compared to lower- and upper-bounds. The obtained results show that these strategies are a good tradeoff to maximize data delivery ratio and minimize network overhead, while making use of mobile networks as a smart city network infrastructure.