Andreia Christina Rafael: Ph.D. in Technological Change and Entrepreneurship

Andreia Rafael 

Andreia Christina Rafael began her Ph.D. in Technological Change and Entrepreneurship (TCE) two years ago in Portugal and has been in Pittsburgh since 2008.

In her opinion it is a "very rewarding experience because I feel I have learned a lot." Andreia is developing a project in the area of intellectual property. In May, she presented her first paper and is currently starting to work on the second one. Her goal is to understand how companies can spend a period without IPR protection before submitting their patents. "In my view, the decision to patent is very strategic and depends on the competition", because "we only need protection when someone wants to emulate our products." Her major objective from a very young age has been to follow an academic career. "I graduated from the Universidade Católica Portuguesa, took my master at ISCTE and then came to this program with a top university that does a great job at interdisciplinary."


"The Program allows a person to experience two worlds: Portuguese and American. Perceive what is good or bad and draw comparisons."